(This page presents resources on unit one)

Globalization.pdf Globalization.pdf
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1.  Joseph Stiglitz, an economist and winner of the Nobel Prize defines Globalization as follows:

Globalization "is the closer integration of the countries and peoples of the world ...brought about by the enormous reduction of costs of transportation and communication, and the breaking down of artificial barriers to the flows of goods, services, capital, knowledge, and people across borders." (from Globalization and its Discontents)

2. Thomas Friedman, political reporter for the New York Times, defines Globalization in terms of PARADIGM SHIFTS. We can compare the contemporary world to the world of the Cold War prior to the fall of Communism (1989). The following is a partial list of contrasts derived from Thomas Friedman's book The Lexus and the Olive Tree.

Paradigm Shifts from the Cold War to the Age of Globalization

Cold WarGlobalization
(of nations, markets and technologies)
the Wallthe Web
8% of world's countries
have free markets
28% of world's countries
have free markets
Different culturesGlobal culture
Weight (megatons)Speed (megabits)
Power of nationsPower of individuals, markets

3. "Globalization, global integration: ‘…a widening, deepening and speeding up of interconnectedness in all aspects of contemporary social life from the cultural to the criminal, the financial to the spiritual’ (Held and McGrew 1999: 2). 

Several dimensions of globalization can usefully be identified. These dimensions can often be analyzed separately even though they may have powerful interconnections.

 Economic globalization means the greater global connectedness of economic activities, through transnational trade, capital flows and migration. Environmental globalization could include the increasingly global effects of human activity on the environment. Cultural globalization may highlight the connections among languages, ways of living, and fears of global homogeneity through the spread of North American and European languages and culture. Political globalization may include wider acceptance of global political standards such as human rights, democracy, labor standards, environmental standards, as well as the greater coordination of actions by governments and other institutions across the globe." 
-- Source: UC Atlas of Global Inequality (

Note that in the above definition, Globalization is divided into four aspects or dimensions:

  • Economic
  • Environmental
  • Political
  • Cultural
Globalization and Beyond.pdf Globalization and Beyond.pdf
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The_world_is_flat_333.pdf The_world_is_flat_333.pdf
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The World is NOT Flat.pdf The World is NOT Flat.pdf
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